Cerebral biomarkers in women with preeclampsia
Abstract: Preeclampsia and eclampsia are among the most common causes of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are no reliable means to predict eclampsia or cerebral edema in women with preeclampsia and knowledge of the brain involvement in preeclampsia is still limited. S100B and neuron specific enolase (NSE) are two cerebral biomarkers of glial- and neuronal origin respectively. They are used as predictors for neurological outcome after traumatic brain injuries and cardiac arrest but have not yet been investigated in preeclampsia.This thesis is based on one longitudinal cohort study of pregnant women (n=469, Paper I and III), one cross sectional study of women with preeclampsia and women with normal pregnancies (n=53 and 58 respectively, Paper II and IV) and one experimental animal study of eclampsia (Paper V).In Paper I and III, plasma concentrations of S100B and NSE were investigated throughout pregnancy in women developing preeclampsia (n=16) and in women with normal pregnancies (n=36) in a nested case control study. Plasma concentrations were increased in women developing preeclampsia in gestational week 33 and 37 for S100B and in gestational week 37 for NSE compared to women with normal pregnancies.In Paper II and IV, increased plasma concentrations of S100B and NSE were confirmed among women with preeclampsia compared to women with normal pregnancies. Furthermore, increased plasma concentrations of S100B correlated to visual disturbances among women with preeclampsia (Paper II) and plasma concentrations of S100B and NSE remained increased among women with preeclampsia one year after delivery (Paper IV).In Paper V, an experimental rat model of preeclampsia and eclampsia demonstrated increased serum concentrations of S100B after seizures in normal pregnancy (n=5) and a tendency towards increased plasma concentrations of S100B in preeclampsia (n=5) compared to normal pregnancy (n=5) without seizures. Furthermore, after seizures, animals with magnesium sulphate treatment demonstrated increased serum concentrations of S100B and NSE compared to no treatment.In conclusion; plasma concentrations of S100B and NSE are increased in preeclampsia during late pregnancy and postpartum and S100B correlates to visual disturbances in women with preeclampsia. The findings are partly confirmed in an animal model of eclampsia.
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