Face Recognition : A Single View Based HMM Approach
Abstract: This dissertation addresses the challenges of giving computers the ability of doing face recognition, i.e. discriminate between different faces. Face recognition systems are commonly trained with a database of face images, becoming “familiar” with the given faces. Many reported methods rely heavily on training database size and representativenes. But collecting training images covering, for instance, a wide range of viewpoints, different expressions and illumination conditions is difficult and costly. Moreover, there may be only one face image per person at low image resolution or quality. In these situations, face recognition techniques usually suffer serious performance drop. Here we present effective algorithms that deal with single image per person database, despite issues with illumination, face expression and pose variation.Illumination changes the appearance of a face in images. Thus, we use a new pyramid based fusion method for face recognition under arbitrary unknown lighting. This extended approach with logarithmic transform works efficiently with a single image. The produced image has better contrast at both low and high ranges, i.e. has more visible details than the original one. An improved method works with high dynamic range images, useful for outdoor face images.Face expressions also modify the images’ appearance. An extended Hidden Markov Models (HMM) with a flexible encoding scheme treats images as an ensemble of horizontal and vertical strips. Each person is modeled by Joint Multiple Hidden Markov Models (JM-HMMs). This approach offers computational advantages and the good learning ability from just a single sample per class. A fast method simulated JM-HMM functionality is then derived. The new method with abstract observations and a simplified similarity measurement does not require retraining HMMs for new images or subjects. Pose invariant recognition from a single sample image per person was overcome by using the wire frame Candide face model for the synthesis of virtual views. This is one of the support functions of our face recognition system, WAWO. The extensive experiments clearly show that WAWO outperforms the state-of-the-art systems in FERET tests.
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