Design Aspects of Fully Integrated Multiband Multistandard Front-End Receivers
Abstract: In this thesis, design aspects of fully integrated multibandmultistandard front-end receivers are investigated based onthree fundamental aspects: noise, linearity and operatingfrequency. System level studies were carried out to investigatethe effects of different modulation techniques, duplexing andmultiple access methods on the noise, linearity and selectivityperformance of the circuit. Based on these studies and thelow-cost consideration, zero-IF, low-IF and wideband-IFreceiver architectures are promising architectures. These havea common circuit topology in a direct connection between theLNA and the mixer, which has been explored in this work toimprove the overall RF-to-IF linearity. One front-end circuitapproach is used to achieve a low-cost solution, leading to anew multiband multistandard front-end receiver architecture.This architecture needs a circuit whose performance isadaptable due to different requirements specified in differentstandards, works across several RF-bands and uses a minimumamount ofexternal components.Five new circuit topologies suitable for a front-endreceiver consisting of an LNA and mixer (low-noise converter orLNC) were developed. A dual-loop wide-band feedback techniquewas applied in all circuits investigated in this thesis. Threeof the circuits were implemented in 0.18 mm RF-CMOS and 25 GHzbipolar technologies. Measurement results of the circuitsconfirmed the correctness of the design approach.The circuits were measured in several RF-bands, i.e. in the900 MHz, 1.8 GHz and 2.4 GHz bands, with S11 ranging from?9.2 dB to?17 dB. The circuits have a typicalperformance of 18-20 dB RF-to-IF gain, 3.5-4 dB DSB NF and upto +4.5 dBm IIP3. In addition, the circuit performance can beadjusted by varying the circuit?s first-stage biascurrent. The circuits may work at frequencies higher than 3GHz, as only 1.5 dB of attenuation is found at 3 GHz and nopeaking is noticed. In the CMOS circuit, the extrapolated gainat 5 GHz is about 15 dB which is consistent with the simulationresult. The die-area of each of the circuits is less than 1mm2.
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