Exact Methods for Multi-echelon Inventory Control : Incorporating Shipment Decisions and Detailed Demand Information
Abstract: Recent advances in information technologies and an increased environmental awareness have altered the prerequisites for successful logistics. For companies operating on a global market, inventory control of distribution systems is often an essential part of their logistics planning. In this context, the research objective of this thesis is: To develop exact methods for stochastic inventory control of multi-echelon distribution systems incorporating shipment decisions and/or detailed demand information.The thesis consists of five scientific papers (Paper I, II, III, IV and V) preceded by a summarizing introduction. All papers study systems with a central warehouse supplying a number of non-identical local warehouses (retailers) facing stochastic demand. For given replenishment policies, the papers provide exact expressions for evaluating the expected long-run system behavior (e.g., distributions of backorders, inventory levels, shipment sizes and expected costs) and present optimization procedures for the control variables. Paper I and II consider systems where shipments from the central warehouse are consolidated to groups of retailers and dispatched periodically. By doing so, economies of scale for the transports can be reached, reducing both transportation costs and emissions. Paper I assumes Poisson customer demand and considers volume-dependent transportation costs and emissions. The model involves the possibility to reserve intermodal (train) capacity in combination with truck transports available on demand. For this system, the expected inventory costs, the expected transportation costs and the expected transport emissions are determined. Joint optimization procedures for the shipment intervals, the capacity reservation quantities, the reorder points and order-up-to levels in the system are provided, with or without emission considerations. Paper II analyses the expected costs of the same system for compound Poisson demand (where customer demand sizes may vary), but with only one transportation mode and fixed transportation costs per shipment. It also shows how to handle fill rate constraints. Paper III studies a system where all stock points use installation stock (R,Q) ordering policies (batch ordering). This implies that situations can occur when only part of a requested retailer order is available at the central warehouse. In these situations, the models in existing literature predominantly assume that available units are shipped immediately (partial delivery). An alternative is to wait until the entire order is available before dispatching (complete delivery). The paper introduces a cost for splitting the order and evaluates a system where optimal choices between partial and complete deliveries are made for all orders. In a numerical study it is shown that significant savings can be made by using this policy compared to systems which exclusively use either partial or complete deliveries. Paper IV shows how companies can benefit from detailed information about their customer demand. In a continuous review base stock system, the customer demand is modeled with independent compound renewal processes at the retailers. This means that the customer inter-arrival times may follow any continuous distribution and the demand sizes may follow any discrete distribution. A numerical study shows that this model can achieve substantial savings compared to models using the common assumption of exponential customer inter-arrival times. Paper V is a short technical note that extends the scope of analysis for several existing stochastic multi-echelon inventory models. These models analyze the expected costs without first determining the inventory level distribution. By showing how these distributions can be obtained from the expected cost functions, this note facilitates the analysis of several service measures, including the ready rate and the fill rate.
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