# Schrödinger Operators in Waveguides

Abstract: In this thesis, which consists of four papers, we study the discrete spectrum of Schrödinger operators in waveguides. In these domains the quadratic form of the Dirichlet Laplacian operator does not satisfy any Hardy inequality. If we include an attractive electric potential in the model or curve the domain, then bound states will always occur with energy below the bottom of the essential spectrum. We prove that a magnetic field stabilises the threshold of the essential spectrum against small perturbations. We deduce this fact from a magnetic Hardy inequality, which has many interesting applications in itself.In Paper I we prove the magnetic Hardy inequality in a two-dimensional waveguide. As an application, we establish that when a magnetic field is present, a small local deformation or a small local bending of the waveguide will not create bound states below the essential spectrum.In Paper II we study the Dirichlet Laplacian operator in a three-dimensional waveguide, whose cross-section is not rotationally invariant. We prove that if the waveguide is locally twisted, then the lower edge of the spectrum becomes stable. We deduce this from a Hardy inequality.In Paper III we consider the magnetic Schrödinger operator in a three-dimensional waveguide with circular cross-section. If we include an attractive potential, eigenvalues may occur below the bottom of the essential spectrum. We prove a magnetic Lieb-Thirring inequality for these eigenvalues. In the same paper we give a lower bound on the ground state of the magnetic Schrödinger operator in a disc. This lower bound is used to prove a Hardy inequality for the magnetic Schrödinger operator in the original waveguide setting.In Paper IV we again study the two-dimensional waveguide. It is known that if the boundary condition is changed locally from Dirichlet to magnetic Neumann, then without a magnetic field bound states will occur with energies below the essential spectrum. We however prove that in the presence of a magnetic field, there is a critical minimal length of the magnetic Neumann boundary condition above which the system exhibits bound states below the threshold of the essential spectrum. We also give explicit bounds on the critical length from above and below.

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