Exploring Novel Catalytic Chalcogenide Antioxidants
Abstract: This thesis is concerned with the synthesis and evaluation of regenerable chalcogen containing antioxidants. Variously substituted 2,3-dihydrobenzo[b]selenophene-5-ol antioxidants were evaluated in order to gain information about structure/reactivity-relationships. Within the series explored, the most regenerable unsubstituted compound inhibited lipid peroxidation for more than 320 minutes when assayed in a two-phase lipid peroxidation model in the presence of N-acetylcysteine (NAC). ?-Tocopherol which could inhibit lipid peroxidation for 90 minutes under similar conditions was therefore easily outperformed. The antioxidant activity of the parent was also documented in an aqueous environment. The best catalyst quenched/inhibited ROS production by neutrophils and PMA-stimulated macrophages more efficiently than Trolox. In addition, over a period of seven days, no disruption in proliferation for the cell lines used was observed when exposed to our synthetic compound or Trolox at a concentration of 60 µM.3-Pyridinols substituted with alkyltelluro groups in the ortho-position were more regenerable in the two-phase model than their corresponding para-substituted analogues in the presence of NAC and also inhibited autoxidation of styrene in a catalytic fashion in homogenous phase in the presence of N-tert-butoxycarbonyl cysteine methyl ester (LipCys), a lipid-soluble analogue of NAC. The best inhibitors quenched peroxyl radicals more efficiently than ?-tocopherol. They could also catalyze reduction of organic hydroperoxides in the presence of thiols and therefore mimic the action of the glutathione peroxidase enzymes. Mechanisms for the catalysis are proposed.Octylthio, octylseleno and octyltelluro analogues of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) were synthesized and evaluated. Among these, the tellurium compound was superior to ?-tocopherol in the presence of NAC both when it comes to quenching capacity and regenerability. Organochalcogen substituent effects in phenolic compounds were studied by using EPR, IR and computational methods.
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