Structural and sedimentological reconstruction of the inverted Vargfors basin : a base for 4D-modelling
Abstract: The Palaeoproterozoic Skellefte mining district in northern Sweden covers an area of 120 by 30 km and is one of the most important mining districts in Europe, producing mainly Zn, Cu, Pb, As and Au from volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) and orogenic gold deposits.Detailed mapping of structures and stratigraphy within the sedimentary Vargfors Group combined with a structural analysis revealed a syn-extensional fault pattern of NW-SE-trending normal faults and associated NE-SW-trending transfer faults, creating the segmented sedimentary Vargfors basin. It comprises distinct fault-bound compartments, which incluence the sedimentary stratigraphy in each of these compartments.Syn-rift subsidence affected the sedimentary conditions from near-shore to shallow submarine environment.Intensive fault movements associated with mafic volcanic activity along these faults resulted in the rapid uplift of the oldest phase of the Jörn intrusive complex and/or subsidence of its surrounding areas. Subsequent erosion of the intrusive rocks led to the formation of a tonalite to granodiorite bearing conglomeratic sequence, representing an alluvial fan. Further uplift to the north of the district resulted in the erosion of Arvidsjaur volcanic rocks and the formation of a braided river system. Subsidence of the intrusive complex and/or a sedimentary coverage on top of the same caused a break in sedimentation of tonalite to granodiorite clasts. Stratigraphical evolution of the sedimentary rocks and the Vargfors Group - Skellefte Group contact relationships show that rifting started in the centre and proceeded with time towards SE and NW. Subsequent basin inversion resulted in the reactivation of the existing normal faults along a carbonate-rich basal layer forming asymmetric synclines. Primary geometries of sedimentary strata within each fault-bound compartment controlled their deformation styles. Furthermore, strain was partitioned into the faults, forming high strain zones along the basin margins, where foliations parallel the main faults, and low strain domains in the core of the basin, where foliation is oblique to the main structural grain of the basin. This oblique foliation is either a result of a rotating stress field or a transpressional regime. This case study on basin inversion gives implications for accretion processes along the Svecokarelian Craton margin as well as forthe formation of VMS-deposits and their possible transposition. Basic modelling of the main geological boundaries in the central Skellefte district was performed by integrating data from regional to outcrop scale using the GoCAD (Paradigm) software platform. Available data included geographical and geological data, which were imported from ArcGIS (ESRI) as well as drill-hole data, seismic profiles, resistivity and gravimetry profiles and EM-profiles. Creation of the main geological boundaries utilized GoCAD and SPARSE (Mirageoscience) algorithms, whereas structural geological data was exclusively modelled with SPARSE. Furthermore, this study provides a base for refining the 3-dimensional model and developing a 4-dimensional model, showing the geological evolution of the Skellefte district.
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