A study of solid and liquid inclusion separation at the steel-slag interface

University dissertation from Stockholm : KTH

Abstract: This thesis work aimed to provide a better knowledge of inclusion behavior at the steel-slag interface. All results are based on mathematical modeling of liquid and solid inclusion separation to the slag. The model descriptions of the inclusion transfer are based on the equation of motion at the system. It is assumed that the inclusion transfer is governed by four forces acting on the inclusion as it has reached the steel-slag interface. These are the buoyancy force, the added mass force, the drag force and the rebound force. The models assume two cases of inclusion separation depending on the inclusion Reynolds number. In the case where Reynolds number is larger or equal to unity, Re?1, a steel film is formed between the inclusion and the slag. This steel film must first be drained before the inclusion can separate to the slag. If Reynolds number, Re<1, then no steel film is formed and the inclusion will be in direct contact with the slag. The mathematical models also propose three types of inclusion behavior as the inclusion crosses the steel-slag interface. The inclusion can either, pass and separate to the slag, oscillate at the interface with the possibility of reentering the steel bath with the steel flow or it can remain at the interface not completely separated to the slag. A parameter study for 20 ?m inclusions showed that the most important parameters controlling the inclusion behavior at the steel-slag interface are the slag viscosity and the interfacial tensions between the phases. For 100?m inclusions also the inclusion density affects the inclusion behavior. The models were applied to ladle and tundish conditions. Since the slags in the chosen industrial conditions have not been studied experimentally before, estimations of the important physical property parameters were made. Future measurements will therefore be needed in order to make predictions of inclusion transfer behavior at the steel-slag interface which are more relevant for the industry. The main conclusion is that useful plots can be made in order to illustrate the tendency for the inclusion transfer and how to manipulate the physical property parameters in order to increase the inclusion separation in ladles and tundishes.