The Bentonite Barrier - Swelling Properties, Redox Chemistry and Mineral Evolution
Abstract: Bentonite is planned for use as a buffer material in high-level radioactive waste repositories, where safety assessment is performed for very long periods (100-1000 ka). This thesis focuses on the swelling of smectites in liquid water, and analysis of bentonite from field experiments at Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory, Sweden. Four field experiments were analyzed (Alternative Buffer Material experiment, ABM1, ABM2; Temperature Buffer Test, TBT; and Prototype) with focus on Fe- redox chemistry and formation of trioctahedral smectite. The techniques used were mainly synchrotron X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In ABM1 and Prototype the Fe(II)/Fe-total ratio had increased. In TBT no significant increase in Fe(II) was found; instead the corrosion products were dominated by Fe(III). Formation of trioctahedral clays was found in the iron-bentonite experiments (ABM1, ABM2, TBT), but not in Prototype where the heater instead was of copper. In swelling experiments, Ca-Wyoming montmorillonite was shown to expand and partly form a four-water-layer hydrate at lower temperatures in water. This was studied in more detail, and the influence of divalent interlayer cation, temperature, layer charge, salt and irradiation was investigated. Among the investigated smectites, decreased temperature increased the crystalline swelling until ice was formed. Lower smectite layer charge increased the crystalline swelling. Increasing the Gibbs hydration energy of the divalent interlayer cation increased the crystalline swelling. Introduction of salt in the water partly dehydrated the montmorillonite at 20°C, but minimized the dehydration of montmorillonite upon ice formation at low temperatures (-50, -100°C), especially with CaCl2. It was found that in a gradient of ethylene glycol and water a 21 Å basal distance was formed in the montmorillonite, which was higher than in the pure liquids.
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