Roles of LESIONS SIMULATING DISEASE1 and Salicylic Acid in Acclimation of Plants to Environmental Cues Redox Homeostasis and physiological processes underlying plants responses to biotic and abiotic challenges
Abstract: In the natural environment plants are confronted to a multitude of biotic and abiotic stress factors that must be perceived, transduced, integrated and signaled in order to achieve a successful acclimation that will secure survival and reproduction. Plants have to deal with excess excitation energy (EEE) when the amount of absorbed light energy is exceeding that needed for photosynthetic CO2 assimilation. EEE results in ROS formation and can be enhanced in low light intensities by changes in other environmental factors.The lesions simulating disease resistance (lsd1) mutant of Arabidopsis spontaneously initiates spreading lesions paralleled by ROS production in long day photoperiod and after application of salicylic acid (SA) and SA-analogues that trigger systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Moreover, the mutant fails to limit the boundaries of hypersensitive cell death (HR) after avirulent pathogen infection giving rise to the runaway cell death (rcd) phenotype. This ROS-dependent phenotype pointed towards a putative involvement of the ROS produced during photosynthesis in the initiation and spreading of the lesions.We report here that the rcd has a ROS-concentration dependent phenotype and that the light-triggered rcd is depending on the redox-state of the PQ pool in the chloroplast. Moreover, the lower stomatal conductance and catalase activity in the mutant suggested LSD1 was required for optimal gas exchange and ROS scavenging during EEE. Through this regulation, LSD1 can influence the effectiveness of photorespiration in dissipating EEE. Moreover, low and high SA levels are strictly correlated to lower and higher foliar H2O2 content, respectively. This implies an essential role of SA in regulating the redox homeostasis of the cell and suggests that SA could trigger rcd in lsd1 by inducing H2O2 production.LSD1 has been postulated to be a negative regulator of cell death acting as a ROS rheostat. Above a certain threshold, the pro-death pathway would operate leading to PCD. Our data suggest that LSD1 may be subjected to a turnover, enhanced in an oxidizing milieu and slowed down in a reducing environment that could reflect this ROS rheostat property. Finally, the two protein disulphide isomerase boxes (CGHC) present in the protein and the down regulation of the NADPH thioredoxin reductase (NTR) in the mutant connect the rcd to a putative impairment in the reduction of the cytosolic thioredoxin system. We propose that LSD1 suppresses the cell death processes through its control of the oxidation-reduction state of the TRX pool. An integrated model considers the role of LSD1 in both light acclimatory processes and in restricting pathogen-induced cell death.
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