Type Ia Supernova Cosmology Quantitative Spectral Analysis

University dissertation from Stockholm : Fysikum

Abstract: Type Ia supernovae have been successfully used as standardized candles to study the expansion history of the Universe. In the past few years, these studies led to the exciting result of an accelerated expansion caused by the repelling action of some sort of dark energy. This result has been confirmed by measurements of cosmic microwave background radiation, the large-scale structure, and the dynamics of galaxy clusters. The combination of all these experiments points to a “concordance model” of the Universe with flat large-scale geometry and a dominant component of dark energy.However, there are several points related to supernova measurements which need careful analysis in order to doubtlessly establish the validity of the concordance model. As the amount and quality of data increases, the need of controlling possible systematic effects which may bias the results becomes crucial. Also important is the improvement of our knowledge of the physics of supernovae events to assure and possibly refine their calibration as standardized candle.This thesis addresses some of those issues through the quantitative analysis of supernova spectra. The stress is put on a careful treatment of the data and on the definition of spectral measurement methods. The comparison of measurements for a large set of spectra from nearby supernovae is used to study the homogeneity and to search for spectral parameters which may further refine the calibration of the standardized candle. One such parameter is found to reduce the dispersion in the distance estimation of a sample of supernovae to below 6%, a precision which is comparable with the current lightcurve-based calibration, and is obtained in an independent manner. Finally, the comparison of spectral measurements from nearby and distant objects is used to test the possibility of evolution with cosmic time of the intrinsic brightness of type Ia supernovae.