Development of Salt-Sensitive Hypertension in Hydronephrosis

University dissertation from Uppsala : Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis

Abstract: Hydronephrosis, due to ureteropelvic junction obstruction, is a common condition in infants with an incidence of approximately 0.5-1%. During the last decade, the surgical management of non-symptomatic hydronephrosis has become more conservative, and the long-term physiological consequences of this new policy are unclear. The overall aim of this thesis was to determine whether there is a link between hydronephrosis and the development of hypertension. Hydronephrosis was induced by partial ureteral obstruction in 3-week old rats or mice. In the adult animals, blood pressure was measured telemetrically during different sodium conditions and the renal function was evaluated. Both species developed salt-sensitive hypertension and histopathological changes (i.e. fibrosis, inflammation, glomerular and tubular changes) that correlated with the degree of hydronephrosis. An abnormal renal excretion pattern with increased diuresis and impaired urine concentrating ability was observed in hydronephrosis. The mechanisms were primarily located to the diseased kidney, as relief of the obstruction attenuated blood pressure and salt-sensitivity. Increased renin angiotensin system activity, due to ureteral obstruction, might be involved in the development but not necessary the maintenance of hypertension. Hydronephrotic animals displayed reduced nitric oxide availability, which might be due to increased oxidative stress in the diseased kidney. Renal nitric oxide deficiency and subsequent resetting of the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism, appeared to have an important role in the development of hypertension. In conclusion, experimental hydronephrosis, induced by partial ureteral obstruction, provides a new model for studies of salt-sensitive hypertension. Furthermore, the new findings imply that the current conservative treatment strategy in hydronephrosis should be reconsidered in favour of treatment that is more active, in order to prevent the development of renal injury and hypertension in later life.