Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Radio Propagation Channels Characteristics and Models
Abstract: In recent years, deploying multiple antennas at both transmitter and receiver has appeared as a very promising technology. By exploiting the spatial domain, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems can support extremely high data rates as long as the environments can provide sufficiently rich scattering. To design high performance MIMO wireless systems and predict system performance under various circumstances, it is of great interest to have accurate MIMO wireless channel models for different scenarios. In this thesis, we characterize and model MIMO radio propagation channels based on indoor MIMO channel measurements.The recent development on MIMO radio channel modeling is briefly reviewed in this thesis. The models are categorized into non-physical and physical models, and discussed respectively. The non-physical models primarily rely on the statistical characteristics of MIMO channels obtained from the measured data, while the physical models describe the MIMO channel (or its distribution) via some physical parameters. We also briefly mention the MIMO channel modeling work within the IEEE 802.11n and 3GPP/3GPP2 standardization work.For the narrowband case, a non line-of-sight (NLOS) indoor MIMO channel model is presented. The model is based on a Kronecker structure of the channel covariance matrix and the fact that the channel is complex Gaussian. It is extended to line-of-sight (LOS) scenario by estimating and modeling the dominant component separately. For the wideband case, two NLOS MIMO channel models are proposed. The first model uses the average power delay profile and the Kronecker structure of the second order moments of each channel tap to model the wideband MIMO channel, while the second model combines a simple single-input single-output (SISO) model with the same Kronecker structure of the second order moments. Monte-Carlo simulations are used to generate indoor MIMO channel realizations according to the above models. The results are compared with the measured data and good agreement has been observed.Under the assumption of spatial wide sense stationary, a lower bound of the maximum Kronecker model errors is obtained by employing a combination of grid search and semidefinite programming to explore the feasible region. Numerical examples show that the bound is tight for moderate number of grid points. By comparing the worst case model errors with the model errors obtained from the measured channels, we find that the channel correlation matrix in these measurements can, indeed, be well approximated by the Kronecker product of the correlation matrix at the transmitter and the receiver.To model wideband MIMO channels, it is important to investigate the angular statistics on both the tap and cluster levels. Based on 5~GHz indoor wireless channel measurements, a frequency domain space alternating generalized expectation maximization (FD-SAGE) algorithm is employed to estimate the multipath components from the measured data. We then manually identify the clusters of the multipaths and calculate the tap and cluster angular spreads (ASs) for each identified cluster. It is found that for the 100 MHz channels, the average tap AS is just a few degrees less than the cluster AS and the difference diminishes for small channel bandwidth.
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