Electromagnetic Modelling of Power Transformers with DC Magnetization
Abstract: DC currents that flow through the ground can be injected to the star windings of power transformers from their grounded neutral points and close their path with transmission lines. The geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) and AC/DC convertors of high voltage direct current (HVDC) systems are the sources of such DC currents. These currents may cause saturation of the core in power transformers that leads to destruction in the transformer performance. This phenomenon results in unwanted influences on power transformers and the power system. Very asymmetric magnetization current, increasing losses and creation of hot spots in the core, in the windings, and the metallic structural parts are adverse effects that occur in transformers. Also, increasing demand of reactive power and misoperation of protective relays menaces the power network. Damages in large power transformers and blackouts in networks have occurred due to this phenomenonHence, studies regarding this subject have taken the attention of researchers during the last decades. However, a gap of a comprehensive analysis still remains. Thus, the main aim of this project is to reach to a deep understanding of the phenomena and to come up with a solution for a decrease of the undesired effects of GIC.Achieving this goal requires an improvement of the electromagnetic models of transformers which include a hysteresis model, numerical techniques, and transient analysis.In this project until now, a new algorithm for digital measurement of the core materials is developed and implemented. It enhances the abilities of accurate measurements and an improved hysteresis model has been worked out. Also, a novel differential scalar hysteresis model is suggested that easily can be implemented in numerical methods. Three dimensional finite element models of various core types of power transformers are created to study the effect on them due to DC magnetization. In order to enhance the numerical tools for analysis of low frequency transients related to power transformers and the network, a distributed reluctance network method has been outlined. In this thesis a method for solving such a network problem with coupling to an electrical circuit and taking hysteresis into account is suggested.
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