Vertical Axis Wind Turbines : Electrical System and Experimental Results

Abstract: The wind power research at the division of Electricity at Uppsala University is aimed towards increased understanding of vertical axis wind turbines. The considered type of wind turbine is an H-rotor with a directly driven synchronous generator operating at variable speed. The experimental work presented in this thesis comprises investigation of three vertical axis wind turbines of different design and size. The electrical, control and measurement systems for the first 12 kW wind turbine have been designed and implemented. The second was a 10 kW wind turbine adapted to a telecom application. Both the 12 kW and the 10 kW were operated against dump loads. The third turbine was a 200 kW grid-connected wind turbine, where control and measurement systems have been implemented.Experimental results have shown that an all-electric control, substituting mechanical systems such as blade-pitch, is possible for this type of turbine. By controlling the rectified generator voltage, the rotational speed of the turbine is also controlled. An electrical start-up system has been built and verified. The power coefficient has been measured and the stall behaviour of this type of turbine has been examined. An optimum tip speed ratio control has been implemented and tested, with promising results. Use of the turbine to estimate the wind speed has been demonstrated. This has been used to get a faster regulation of the turbine compared to if an anemometer had been used.