Effect of Surface Nanotopography on Blood-Biomaterial Interactions
Abstract: Biologically inspired materials are being developed with the aim of improving the integration of medical implants and minimizing non-desirable host reactions. A promising strategy is the design of topographically patterned surfaces that resemble those found in the extracellular environment.Nanoporous alumina has been recognized as a potential biomaterial and as an important template for the fabrication of nanostructures.In this thesis in vitro studies were done to elucidate the role of alumina nanoporosity on the inflammatory response. Specifically, by comparing alumina membranes with two pore sizes (20 and 200 nm in diameter). Complement and platelet activation were evaluated as well as monocyte/macrophage behaviour.Whole blood was incubated with the alumina membranes and thereafter the biomaterial surfaces were evaluated in terms of protein and platelet adhesion as well as procoagulant properties. The fluid phase was analyzed for complement activation products and platelet activation markers. Besides, human mononuclear cells were cultured on the alumina membranes and cell adhesion, viability, morphology and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated.The results indicated that nanoporous alumina with 200 nm pores promotes higher complement activation than alumina with 20 nm pores.In addition, platelet response to nanoporous alumina was found to be highly dependent on the material porosity, as reflected by differences in adhesion, PMP generation and procoagulant characteristics.A clear difference in monocyte/macrophage adhesion and activation was found between the two pore size alumina membranes. Few but highly activated cells adhered to the 200 nm membrane in contrast to many but less activated monocytes/macrophages on the 20 nm surface.The outcome of this work emphasizes that nanotopography plays an important role in the host response to biomaterials.Better understanding of molecular interactions on nano-level will undoubtedly play a significant role in biomaterial implant development and will contribute to design strategies for controlling specific biological events.
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