Mixing Processes for Ground Improvement by Deep Mixing

University dissertation from Stockholm : Byggvetenskap

Abstract: The thesis is dealing with mixing processes havingapplication to ground improvement by deep mixing. The mainobjectives of the thesis is to make a contribution to knowledgeof the basic mechanisms in mixing binding agents into soil andimprove the knowledge concerning factors that influence theuniformity of stabilised soil.A great part of the work consists of a literature surveywith particular emphasis on literature on the processindustries. This review forms a basis for a profounddescription and discussion of the mixing process and factorsaffecting the process in connection with deep mixingmethods.The thesis presents a method for a simple field test for thestudy of influential factors in the mixing process. A number offactors in the installation process of lime-cement columns havebeen studied in two field tests using statistical multifactorexperiment design. The effects of retrieval rate, number ofmixing blades, rotation speed, air pressure in the storagetank, and diameter of the binder outlet on the stabilisationeffect and the coefficient of variation determined byhand-operated penetrometer tests for excavated lime-cementcolumns, were studied.The literature review, the description of the mixingprocess, and the results from the field tests provide a morebalanced picture of the mixing process and are expected to beuseful in connection to ground improvement projects and thedevelopment of mixing equipments.The concept of sufficient mixture quality, i.e. theinteraction between the mixing process and the mechanicalsystem, is discussed in the last section. By means ofgeostatistical methods, the analysis considers thevolume-variability relationship with reference to strengthproperties. According to the analysis, the design values forstrength properties depends on the mechanical system, the scaleof scrutiny, the spatial correlation structure, and the conceptof safety, i.e. the concept of sufficient mixture quality isproblem specific.Key words:Deep Mixing, Lime cement columns, Mixingmechanisms, Mixture quality, Field test, ANOVA, Variancereduction.