Using Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Principles to Evaluate Individualisation of Antibiotic Dosing – Emphasis on Cefuroxime
Abstract: Cefuroxime is a renally eliminated antibiotic used against a variety of different bacterial infections. The pharmacokinetics (PK) for cefuroxime was studied in 97 hospitalized patients using population analysis. To be able to measure cefuroxime in human serum a new sensitive analytical method was developed using mass spectrometry detection. The method was validated and shown to be sensitive and selective. Cystatin C was found to be a better covariate for cefuroxime clearance compared to the traditionally used creatinine clearance (CLcr). This relation might be useful when designing dosing strategies for cefuroxime and other renally eliminated drugs.The time-courses of the biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and body temperature were studied for the first 72 hours of cefuroxime treatment and was related to the duration of illness previous treatment with cefuroxime and to time to step-down of treatment. When duration of illness was short, CRP and SAA were showed increasing levels. None of the biomarkers could be used to differentiate between early or late step-down of therapy.By use of known PK and pharmacodynamic (PD) principles, dosing strategies based on CLcr for cefuroxime were estimated using minimization of a risk function. The risk function was constructed with the aim to expose patients to cefuroxime concentration above minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for 50 % of the dosing interval and to minimize the amount of drug administered in excess to reach the aim. Based on evaluation using wild type MIC distributions for Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pneumoniae improved dosing strategies were selected.In vitro experiments were performed exposing Streptococcus pyogenes to constant concentration of benzylpenicillin, cefuroxime, erythromycin, moxifloxacin or vancomycin. A semi-mechanistic PK/PD model characterizing the time-course of the antibacterial effect was developed using all data simultaneously. Internal validation showed the model being predictive and robust.
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