Integrated Optimal Code Generation for Digital Signal Processors

University dissertation from Institutionen för datavetenskap

Abstract: In this thesis we address the problem of optimal code generation for irregular architectures such as Digital Signal Processors (DSPs).Code generation consists mainly of three interrelated optimization tasks: instruction selection (with resource allocation), instruction scheduling and register allocation. These tasks have been discovered to be NP-hard for most architectures and most situations. A common approach to code generation consists in solving each task separately, i.e. in a decoupled manner, which is easier from a software engineering point of view. Phase-decoupled compilers produce good code quality for regular architectures, but if applied to DSPs the resulting code is of significantly lower performance due to strong interdependences between the different tasks.We developed a novel method for fully integrated code generation at the basic block level, based on dynamic programming. It handles the most important tasks of code generation in a single optimization step and produces an optimal code sequence. Our dynamic programming algorithm is applicable to small, yet not trivial problem instances with up to 50 instructions per basic block if data locality is not an issue, and up to 20 instructions if we take data locality with optimal scheduling of data transfers on irregular processor architectures into account. For larger problem instances we have developed heuristic relaxations.In order to obtain a retargetable framework we developed a structured architecture specification language, xADML, which is based on XML. We implemented such a framework, called OPTIMIST that is parameterized by an xADML architecture specification.The thesis further provides an Integer Linear Programming formulation of fully integrated optimal code generation for VLIW architectures with a homogeneous register file. Where it terminates successfully, the ILP-based optimizer mostly works faster than the dynamic programming approach; on the other hand, it fails for several larger examples where dynamic programming still provides a solution. Hence, the two approaches complement each other. In particular, we show how the dynamic programming approach can be used to precondition the ILP formulation.As far as we know from the literature, this is for the first time that the main tasks of code generation are solved optimally in a single and fully integrated optimization step that additionally considers data placement in register sets and optimal scheduling of data transfers between different registers sets.

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