Development and Validation of a Numerical Tool for the Aeromechanical Design of Turbomachinery

University dissertation from Stockholm : KTH Royal Institute of Technology

Abstract: In aeromechanical design one of the major rules is to operate under High Cyclic Fatigue (HCF) margins and away from flutter. The level of dynamic excitations and risk of HCF can be estimated by performing forced response analyses from blade row interaction forces or Low Engine Order (LEO) excitation mechanisms. On the other hand, flutter stability prediction can be assessed by calculation of aerodynamic damping forces due to blade motion. In order to include these analyses as regular practices in an industrial aeromechanical design process, interaction between the fields of fluid and structural dynamics must be established in a rather simple yet accurate manner. Effects such as aerodynamic and structural mistuning should also be taken into account where parametric and probabilistic studies take an important role.The present work presents the development and validation of a numerical tool for aeromechanical design. The tool aims to integrate in a standard and simple manner regular aeromechanical analysis such as forced response analysis and aerodynamic damping analysis of bladed disks.Mistuning influence on forced response and aerodynamic damping is assessed by implementing existing model order reduction techniques in order to decrease the computational effort and assess results in an industrially applicable time frame.  The synthesis program solves the interaction of structure and fluid from existing Finite Element Modeling (FEM) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solvers inputs by including a mapping program which establishes the fluid and structure mesh compatibility. Blade row interaction harmonic forces and/or blade motion aerodynamic damping forces are inputs from unsteady fluid dynamic solvers whereas the geometry, mass and stiffness matrices of a blade alone or bladed disk sector are inputs from finite element solvers. Structural and aerodynamic damping is also considered.Structural mistuning is assessed by importing different sectors and any combinations of the full disk model can be achieved by using Reduced Order Model (ROM) techniques. Aerodynamic mistuning data can also be imported and its effects on the forced response and stability assessed. The tool is developed in such a way to allow iterative analysis in a simple manner, being possible to realize aerodynamically and structurally coupled analyses of industrial bladed disks. A new method for performing aerodynamic coupled forced response and stability analyses considering the interaction of different mode families has also been implemented. The method is based on the determination of the aerodynamic matrices by means of least square approximations and is here referred as the Multimode Least Square (MLS) method.The present work includes the program description and its applicability is assessed on a high pressure ratio transonic compressor blade and on a simple blisk.

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