Acoustic separation and electrostatic sampling of submicron particles suspended in air

University dissertation from Stockholm : KTH Royal Institute of Technology

Abstract: We investigate experimentally the effects of acoustic forces on submicron aerosol in a channel flow. This technique can potentially overcome some of the limitations of conventional separation systems and provide advanced manipulation capabilities such as sorting according to size or density. The theoretical framework for acoustophoresis at such small length scales where molecular effects are expected to be significant is still incomplete and in need of experimental validation. The main objectives of this thesis are to identify the physical limitations and capabilities of acoustophoretic manipulation for submicron aerosol particles.Two sets of experiments were carried out: first, qualitative results revealed that acoustic manipulation is possible for submicron particles in air and that the acoustic force follows the trend expected by theoretical models developed for particles in inviscid fluids. The acoustic force on submicron particles was estimated in a second set of measurements performed with quantitative diagnostic tools. Comparison of these results with available theoretical models for the acoustic radiation forces demonstrates that for such small particles additional forces have to be considered. At submicron length scales, the magnitude of the forces observed is orders of magnitude higher than the predictions from the inviscid theory.One potential application for acoustophoresis is specifically investigated in this thesis: assist electrostatic precipitation (ESP) samplers to target very small aerosols, such as those carrying airborne viruses. To identify the shortcomings of ESP samplers that acoustophoresis should overcome, two ESP designs have been investigated to quantify capture efficiency as a function of the particle size and of the air velocity in a wind tunnel. The results reveal that both designs have limitations when it comes to sampling submicron aerosol particles. When exposed to polydispersed suspensions they behave as low-pass filters.