Prevention of Postoperative Duodenal Ileus by COX-2 Inhibition Improves Duodenal Function in Anaesthetised Rats
Abstract: Abdominal surgery inhibits gastrointestinal motility, a phenomenon referred to as postoperative ileus. Since the postoperative ileus disturbs duodenal physiology it is important to minimize the side effects of this condition. Recent experiments in our laboratory show that treatment of anaesthetised rats with parecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, prevents duodenal postoperative ileus, increases duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion and improves other functions as well. One aim of the thesis was to investigate whether removal of luminal chloride affect the parecoxib- and the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-induced stimulation of duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion. The proximal duodenum of anaesthetised Dark Agouti rats was perfused with isotonic solutions containing zero or low Cl- and the effect on luminal alkalinisation determined. The basal as well as the parecoxib-induced increase in alkalinisation, but not that stimulated by VIP, were markedly reduced in the absence of luminal Cl-.One important function of the duodenum is to adjust luminal osmolality towards that in the blood. It is believed that the adjustment of osmolality in the duodenum is achieved by osmosis and diffusion of electrolytes along their concentration gradients and that these processes occur predominately paracellularly. Another aim of the thesis was to examine whether prevention of postoperative ileus affects the duodenal response to luminal hypertonicity. The proximal duodenum of anaesthetised Dark Agouti and Sprague-Dawley rats were perfused with hypertonic solutions of different composition and osmolality and the effects on duodenal motility, alkaline secretion, transepithelial fluid flux, mucosal permeability and the adjustment of luminal osmolality were determined in absence and presence of parecoxib.It is concluded that COX-2 inhibition increases duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion by stimulating apical Cl-/HCO3- exchange in duodenocytes. Furthermore, pretreatment of anaesthetised rats with parecoxib improves a number of duodenal functions in both rat strains that contribute to improve the ability to adjust luminal osmolality. The choice of rat strain is another important feature to consider when interpreting the results because the DA strain was more responsive to luminal hypertonicity than the SD strain. Finally, several evidences are provided to suggest that the adjustment of luminal osmolality in the rat duodenum is a regulated process.
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