Ultrasound Contrast Agents Loaded with Magnetic Nanoparticles : Acoustic and Mechanical Characterization
Abstract: The current methodologies in body scanning diagnostic uses different simultaneous imaging modalities like Ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). The field requires combination of different modalities for effective use in clinical diagnostics. Such incorporation of different modalities has already been achieved. For example, PET-CT hybrid scanner is designed to acquire align functional and anatomical images and recently US-MRI scanner has successfully shown to improve diagnosis of prostate cancer. The non ionizing radiation hybrid US-MRI is of great interest in health care industry. Further these US and MRI modalities uses different contrast agents like micro-sized gas bubbles (MBs) encapsulated by surfactant for US and superparamagnetic nanoparticles for MRI imaging modalities to further enables new diagnostic opportunities and therapeutic applications. Recently in our 3MiCRON project, we have developed the multimodal contrast agent that could be supported for both US and MRI. This was achieved by coating the magnetic nanoparticles to the poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) surfactant shelled MBs. The nanoparticles in the shell effect the structure can alter the MBs performance as an ultrasound contrast agent. The present thesis is conducted to examine the acoustic and mechanical properties of such multimodal contrast agents.These multimodal contrast agents were prepared by coating the surface of PVA-shelled MBs by two following strategies: (1) The superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nano-particles (SPIONs) were chemically anchored to the surface of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) shelled MBs namely MBs-chem and (2) in the second strategy the SPIONs were physical entrapped into the PVA shell while formation of PVA surface on the gas bubble were named as MBs-phys. To understand the scattering efficiency and viscoelastic properties of these modified agents, we investigated the backscattering power, attenuation coefficient and phase velocity measurements. Our acoustic experimental results indicate that both the modified MBs and non-modified plain PVA-shelled ultrasound contrast agents have the same echogenic response. The investigation of mechanical properties of modified MBs revealed that the attached SPIONs on the PVA shell has reduced the stiffness of MBs-chem shell, while, the SPIONs inside the shell has increased MBs-phys stiffness. As a result, MBs-chem exhibits soft shell behavior under ultrasound exposure than both MBs-phys. Finally, the images were obtained through the MRI investigations at the department of Radiology, Karolinksa Institute, has demonstrated that both MB types have enough magnetic susceptibility that further provides good detectability in vitro and in vivo. As an outlook, the modified magnetic gas bubbles, i.e. both MBs-chem and MBs-phys can be proposed as a potential contrast agent for both US and MR imaging and can be further utilized in potential therapeutic applications.
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