Pheromonal Mediated Behaviour and Endocrine Responses in Salmonids The impact of Cypermethrin, Copper, and Glyphosate
Abstract: The effects of cypermethrin, copper and glyphosate on the endocrine system and subsequent response to female pheromones were investigated in mature male brown trout (Salmo trutta) parr. Responses measured were the amount of strippable milt, blood plasma levels of both an androgen (11-ketotestosterone (11-KT)) and a progestin (17?,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20b-P)), and behavioural changes. This was done in a two phased investigation where parr were exposed to one of the following via ambient water: 1) 0.1 or 1.0 ?g L-1 cypermethrin, 2) 10 or 100 ?g L-1 copper (Cu2+), or 3) 150 ?g L-1 glyphosate for a 96 hour period. Phase one was a priming experiment exposing parr to a treatment followed by priming with PGF2? or ovarian fluid (OVF). Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr were, also exposed to glyphosate during phase I. The second phase was centered on behavioural observations. Exposed parr were placed in a 35,000 L stream aquarium together with two ovulated females and four anadromous males. After the experiments a blood sample was taken, milt volumes measured and testes weighed. The plasma was analyzed for 11-KT and 17,20b-P concentrations using radioimmunoassay (RIA).Results from phase I-priming: 1.0 ?g L-1 cypermethrin exposure lowered 17,20b-P and 11-KT; Copper exposure lowered milt volumes; glyphosate exposure lowered 11-KT in salmon and raised 17,20b-P in trout. Results from phase II-behaviour: 1.0 ?g L-1 cypermethrin exposure lowered 11-KT, milt and spawning behaviour; copper exposure lowered spawning behaviour and raised 11-KT; Glyphosate exposure lowered 11KT; continuous cypermethrin exposure raised 17,20b-P, 11-KT and gave a tendency towards increased aggression. It is concluded that low concentration exposure to the compounds examined can induce negative effects on male salmonid endocrine systems, either through a disruption in the olfactory system or through a direct effect.
CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD THE WHOLE DISSERTATION. (in PDF format)