Intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) Susceptibility investigations and classification of civilian systems and equipment
Abstract: This PhD thesis addresses the threat posed to society by sources that can produce high power electromagnetic pulses (HEPM) and be used maliciously to disturb or damage electronic equipment. The vulnerability from intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) has increased in the recent decades due to the widespread dependence of the civil society on sensitive electronic systems and proliferation of radiation sources.As the characteristics of the disturbances associated with IEMI often have very high frequency content, the existing mitigation measures and protection components may not be adequate. It was seen that for ultra wideband (UWB) transients low voltage protection components may not work as intended, due to parasitic components that arises from the packaging of the device.The large spatial distribution of many civilian facilities and critical infra-structures (e.g., power generation, communications, train system, etc.) presents many unexpected ports for an attacker as the majority of the parts of these systems are not protected or secure.As the new European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) will utilize wireless communication for communication and control of the trains the vulnerability from different radiating HPEM sources was investigated. Angles of incidence and frequencies that are a threat in a given situation are identified.Due to the possibility of unexpected ports, the propagation of differential mode ultra wideband transients in low voltage power networks, when injected into a power socket of a facility, was studied. The effects on the transient propagation from cable bends, switches and junctions were studied, both in a laboratory setup and in the network of a facility.Also, as modern electronic equipment and systems may not be tested for waveforms and disturbances other than standardized EMC tests, experiments on some common commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment were performed with non-standard test situation. It was seen that these could easily be disturbed or even permanently damaged.In addition, due to the inherent difficulties with IEMI, a new method for classifying facilities from IEMI is suggested. It is based on available terminology of accessibility (A), susceptibility (S) and consequence (C), but expands these and forms the so called IEMI/ASC-cube.
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