Computational modeling of biological barriers
Abstract: One of the most important aspects for all life on this planet is the act to keep their biological processes in a state where they do not reach equilibrium. One part in the upholding of this imbalanced state is the barrier between the cells and their surroundings, created by the cell membrane. Additionally, terrestrial animal life often requires a barrier that protects the organism's body from external hazards and water loss. As an alternative to experiments, the investigation of the processes occurring at these barriers can be performed by using molecular dynamics simulations. Through this method we can obtain an atomistic description of the dynamics associated with events that are not accessible to experimental setups. In this thesis the first paper presents an improved particle-mesh Ewald method for the calculation of long-range Lennard-Jones interactions in molecular dynamics simulations, which solves the historical performance problem of the method. The second paper demonstrate an improved implementation, with a higher accuracy, that only incurs a performance loss of roughly 15% compared to conventional simulations using the Gromacs simulation package. Furthermore, the third paper presents a study of cholesterol's effect on the permeation of six different solutes across a variety of lipid bilayers. A laterally inhomogeneous permeability in cholesterol-containing membranes is proposed as an explanation for the large differences between experimental permeabilities and calculated partition coefficients in simulations. The fourth paper contains a coarse-grained simulation study of a proposed structural transformation in ceramide bilayer structures, during the formation of the stratum corneum. The simulations show that glycosylceramides are able to stabilize a three-dimensionally folded bilayer structure, while simulations with ceramides collapse into a lamellar bilayer structure.
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