Modelling and Characterization of Perforates in Lined Ducts and Mufflers
Abstract: Increased national and international travel over the lastdecades has caused an increase in the global number ofpassengers using different means of transportation. Greateffort is being directed to improving the noisy environment inthe residential community. This is to face the growing strictnoise requirements which are implemented by international noiseregulatory authorities, governments, and local airports. Thereis also a strong competition between different manufacturers tomake their products quieter. The propulsion system in anaircraft is the major source of noise during relevant flightconditions. The engine noise in a vehicle dominates the totalradiated noise at low speeds especially inside cities. Manyrecent studies on noise reduction involve the use of perforatedplates in the air and gas flow ducting connected to the engine.This thesis deals with the modelling of perforates as anabsorbent.There are many difficulties in using liners in theseapplications. The most important is that there is no largesurface area to which the linings may be applied. Equally, theenvironment in which linings have to survive is hostile.Therefore, liners have to be carefully tailored in order toachieve the most efficient attenuation. The full-scalesimulation testing, which is usually necessary to define thenoise attenuation produced by a liner installation, is bothtime-consuming and expensive. Therefore, a need for accuratemodels is a must. This thesis fills some gaps in the impedancemodelling of perforated liners. It also concentrates on thosecomplicated situations of sound propagation in ducts that weresolved earlier using Finite Element Methods. Alternateanalytical solutions to these problems are developed here,which gives more physical insight into the results.The key design parameter of perforates is the acousticimpedance. The impedance is what determines their efficiency toabsorb sound waves. A semi empirical impedance model wasdeveloped to be capable of accurately predicting the linerimpedance as a function of its physical properties and thesurrounding conditions. It was compared to all previous modelsin the literature. Nothing in the literature has been reportedon the effect of temperature on the perforate impedance,therefore a complete study was performed. A new inverseanalytical impedance measurement technique was proposed. It isbased on educing the impedance value based on the measurementof the attenuation across a lined duct section. Twoapplications were further considered: The effect of hard stripsin lined ducts on there attenuation properties; and themodelling of perforations in a complicated automotive mufflersystem.Keywords:PerforatesLinersAcousticimpedanceHot stream linersHard splicesMufflersLined ductsCollocationFlowduct.
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