Aspects of Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 in Mild to Moderate Renal Dysfunction
Abstract: Disturbances in mineral metabolism contribute to vascular calcification and mortality risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Serum levels of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)23, a bone derived, phosphaturic peptide, are associated with cardiovascular mortality in CKD. Membrane bound klotho(KL) is an obligate co receptor for FGF23 signaling in the kidney. To study aspects of FGF23 in mild to moderate impairment of renal function we have analyzed FGF23, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), parathyroid hormone(PTH), 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D (1,25D), calcium and phosphate in one patient with a FGF23 producing tumor, before and after tumor removal (study 1), in 72 CKD patients with varying degree of renal dysfunction (study 2), in 9 healthy kidney donors, before and after nephrectomy (study 3). We also analyzed FGF23 (study 4), and performed genotyping of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the KL gene (study 5) in 2838 elderly Swedish men (MrOs study) and examined the association with mortality.FGF23 normalizes in 30-45 minutes after removal of a FGF23 producing tumor (study 1). 1,25D increases in hours and remains elevated months, even when the other parameters have normalized. FGF23 increase early in CKD, initially slowly, in correlation with PTH, but exponentially when hyperphosphatemia ensues (study 2). After unilateral nephrectomy (study 3) mineral homeostasis remain stable, initially due to a rise in PTH and later to an increase in FGF23.FGF23 levels are not correlated with mortality in elderly men after adjustment for eGFR, but with mortality due to cardiovascular disease, even in persons with normal eGFR (study 4). Polymorphism of the KL gene do not correlate with increased mortality risk in elderly men (study 5), but there is a modulating effect on FGF23 levels.FGF23 is of importance in maintaining phosphate homeostasis as renal function declines. It is co regulated with PTH until advanced renal dysfunction, and adjust the 1,25D to the actual GFR. FGF23 is associated with cardiovascular mortality. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanism, and if reduction of FGF23 by reducing phosphate intake may be beneficial even in persons with mild to moderate renal function.
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