Some studies on metamaterial transmission lines and their applications

University dissertation from Stockholm : KTH

Abstract: This thesis focuses mostly on investigating different potential applications of meta-transmission line (TL), particularly composite right/left handed (CRLH) TL, and analyzing some new phenomena and applications of meta-TL, mostly left-handed (LH) TL. Realization principle will also be studied.   First, the fundamental electromagnetic properties of propagation in the presence of left-handed material (LHM) are illustrated. The transmission line approach for LHM design is described together with a brief review of the transmission line theory. As a generalized model for LHM TL, CRLH TL provides very unique phase response, such as dual-band operation, bandwidth enhancement, nonlinear dispersion, and the existence of critical frequency with zero phase velocity. Based on these properties, some novel applications of the existing CRLH transmission lines are then given, including a notch filter, a diplexer, a broadband phase shifter, a broadband balun, and a dual band rat-ring coupler. In the design of notch filters and diplexers, CRLH TL shunt stub is utilized to provide high frequency selectivity due to the existence of critical frequency with zero phase velocity. The proposed wideband Wilkinson balun, which comprises of one section of conventional transmission lines and one section of CRLH-TL, is shown to have a 180°±10° bandwidth of 2.12 GHz centered at 1.5 GHz. In the analysis of the dual band rat-ring couplers, a generalized formulation of the requirements about impedances and electrical length of the branches are derived, and as an example, a compact dual-band rat-race coupler is designed utilizing the balanced CRLH TL. Furthermore, a low pass filter is also proposed and designed based on a single (epsilon) negative coplanar waveguide (CPW).Various principles to realize meta-transmission lines are investigated. The main conclusions are listed below:Ÿ         Dual composite right/left handed (D-CRLH) transmission line, which is the dual structure of conventional CRLH TL, shows opposite handedness in the high frequencies and low frequencies with CRLH TL. Meanwhile, in the practical implementation, D-CRLH TL always shows a sharp stopband. A notch filter and a dual-band balun are designed based on D-CRLH TL. Ÿ         The lattice type transmission line (LT-TL) shows the same magnitude response with the conventional right-handed (RH) TL, but a constant phase difference in the phase response over a wide frequency band. A wideband rat-race coupler is proposed as an application of the LT-TL. Ÿ         Finger-shorted interdigital capacitors (FSIDCs) are analyzed and it is shown that FSIDC alone can act as a left-handed transmission line. The value of the reactive elements (inductors and capacitors) in the equivalent circuit model is determined by the dimensions of FSIDC. The relationship between them is analyzed.Later, transmission line loaded with negative-impedance-converted inductors and capacitors is illustrated as the first non-dispersive LH transmission line. The design of a negative series impedance converter is given in detail and a wideband power divider is designed as a potential application of the newly proposed meta-transmission lines in is also given.The final part of the thesis focuses on the study of microstrip lines loaded with complementary split ring resonators (SRRs). An equivalent circuit is made for this structure. The circuit model is verified by the experimental results of cases with different periodic lengths. Thereafter, a meander line split ring resonator (MLSRR) is presented. It shows dual band property and the miniature prototypes of complementary MLSRR loaded transmission lines are fabricated. By comparing the resonance frequencies of complementary MLSRR and multiple SRR, it is shown that the complementary MLSRR is very compact. C-MLSRR is applied in rejecting unnecessary frequencies in the ultra wideband antennas.

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