Cultural Competence for Health Professionals : Instrument Development
Abstract: In recent decades, both global migration in general and specifically migration to Sweden have increased. This development compels the need for delivering healthcare to the increasingly diverse populations in Sweden. To support health professionals, for instance occupational therapists, in developing their professional knowledge in encounters with foreign-born clients a self-rating instrument measuring cultural competence is developed. This may contribute to the development of suitable services for foreignborn clients and improve person-centered interventions for these clients.The general aim of this thesis was to develop an instrument for health professionals by examining psychometric properties and utility of the Swedish version of the Cultural Competence Assessment Instrument (CCAI-S) among occupational therapists. The specific aim of study I was to evaluate the content validity and utility of the Swedish version of the Cultural Competence Assessment Instrument (CCAI-S) among occupational therapists. The study had a descriptive and explorative design. Nineteen occupational therapists participated, divided into four focus groups. Qualitative content analysis was used to examine the content validity and utility of the CCAI-S. The specific aim of study II was to examine the clinical relevance, construct validity and reliability of the Swedish version of the Cultural Competence Assessment Instrument (CCAI-S) among Swedish occupational therapists. The study had a cross-sectional design. A web-based questionnaire was e-mailed to a randomised sample of 428 occupational therapists to investigate the construct validity, reliability and utility of the CCAI-S. Factor analysis was performed as well as descriptive statistics.The findings from study I revealed high content validity for all 24 items. However, six items needed reformulations and exemplifications. Regarding utility, the results showed strong support for CCAI-S. The category ‘Interactions with clients’ showed that the CCAI-S could be utilised individually for the health professional and create a higher awareness of cultural questions in practice. The category ‘Workplace and its organisational support’ displayed potential for use in different workplaces regarding CCAI-S and indicated the importance of organisational support for health professionals in the development of cultural competence. The findings from study II regarding construct validity generated a three-factor model with the labels ‘Openness and awareness’, ‘Workplace support’ and ‘Interaction skills’. All three factors showed high factor loadings and contained 12 of the 24 original items. The Cronbach’s Alpha showed high support for the three-factor model. Concerning utility, the participants reported that all 24 items had high clinical relevance.In conclusion, the findings from the two studies indicated good measurement properties and high clinical relevance for the CCAI-S. This may sup-port the utilisation of CCAI-S in the Swedish context for health professionals, for instance occupational therapists. The results of the instrument development show that the upcoming published version of the CCAI-S can be a valuable self-assessment tool for health professionals who strive to improve in person-centred communication in encounters with foreign-born clients. CCAI-S can also be of support for the organisation to serve as a guide for what to focus on to develop cultural competence within the staff. Altogether this presumably influence the effectiveness of the healthcare and enhance the evidence of interventions for foreign-born clients. To develop an instrument is an iterative process requiring several evaluations and tests in various settings and populations. Therefore further psychometric testing and utility studies on the CCAI-S is crucial.
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