Carbon Dioxide Pneumoperitoneum - Hemodynamic Consequences and Thromboembolic Complications
Abstract: The laparoscopic way of performing general surgical procedures was introduced all over the Western world in a few years around 1990. No previous scientific studies of the safety of this new way of performing general surgery had been undertaken.In an animal study, it was shown that carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum (CO2PP) causes an increase in inferior caval vein (ICV) pressure, although there were no effects on the ICV blood flow. There were gradual increases in systemic, pulmonary and ICV vascular resistance, which remained after exsufflation. These effects on vascular resistance could not be reproduced in a second animal study, presumably due to a different form of anesthesia. In this study, there was only indirect evidence of CO2 PP decreasing urine output. No increase in vasopressin, which is commonly seen during CO2 PP, was found, indicating that vasopressin may play a role in the decreased urine output during CO2 PP but that there must be other contributing factors as well. Only brief effects on the renal arterial blood flow were seen.Renal venous pressure increased to that of the ICV.A literature review indicated that thromboembolic complications do occur after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). The relative frequencies indicated an underreporting of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in relation to pulmonary embolism (PE).In a clinical study, activation of the coagulation after LC was demonstrated. There were differences between the groups receiving dextran and low molecular weight heparin as prophylaxis. A further clinical study showed the incidence of DVT, as demonstrated by phlebography, to be 2.0 % (95 % confidence interval 0-6.0 %) 7-11 days after LC, even though thromboembolism prophylaxis was given in shorter courses than those scientifically proven to be effective against DVT. D-dimer values increased at the first postoperative day and even further at the time of phlebography, suggesting that the effects of LC on coagulation and/or fibrinolysis may be of longer duration than previously known.
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