Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation and Renal Dysfunction : New Markers of Poor Prognosis in Patients with Unstable Coronary Artery Disease

Abstract: In patients with unstable coronary artery disease (CAD) biochemical markers are emerging as useful tools in clinical management. In this thesis we studied the use of markers of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and renal function.Our study populations consisted of unstable CAD patients included in the Fast Revascularisation during Instability in Coronary artery disease (FRISC)-II trial and healthy controls. Patients were followed for 2 years regarding death and myocardial infarction (MI).Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, we found that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL), especially when combined with high-density lipoprotein, compared to traditionally measured lipids/lipoproteins, and a new lipoprotein marker, lipoprotein associated-phospholipase A2, was better at discriminating between healthy controls and CAD patients. In patients, OxLDL was found to be an independent prognostic marker associated with an increased risk of MI, of particular use in patients with no evidence of myocardial necrosis. In our study on the effects of an early invasive treatment strategy in unstable CAD patients with mild to moderate renal dysfunction (i.e. creatinine clearance <90mL/min) we found that in patients randomized to invasive treatment, the rates of death/MI and MI alone were significantly lower than in patients randomized to non-invasive treatment. In patients treated invasively, no detrimental effects were seen on renal function at follow-up at 6 months. In healthy controls, we investigated new markers of renal (cystatin C) and cardio-renal function (N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide, [NT-proBNP]) regarding reference levels and physiological determinants. We found that cystatin C is influenced by age whereas NT-proBNP is influenced by age and gender.Our studies suggest that OxLDL and renal dysfunction are associated with a poor prognosis in unstable CAD patients and that these markers demonstrate potential for clinical use. In the search for new markers related to renal function we have contributed with reference levels of cystatin C and NT-proBNP.