Absorption of Sound : On the effects of field interaction on absorber performance
Abstract: Environmental noise has for decades been a well known problem, especially in urban areas. As noise requirements for vehicles are sharpened, noise reducing concepts are needed in early design stages requiring accurate simulations to support the design. Specifically for optimization of noise treatments, the absorber performance must be simulated correctly.So called noise encapsulations are placed below the powertrain on heavy vehicles to enclose the engine and reduce noise radiation. The attenuation of the absorbers on these shields must be represented correctly in simulations, even in environments with complex sound field, cooling flow and high temperature variations which may affect the absorber performance. This thesis studies the performance variation due to different absorber representations and due to these factors and how to include this in simulations.It is shown that the material representation significantly affects the attenuation performance in the simulations. Assuming locally reacting absorbers neglects the full interaction between the sound field and the material, which was shown to affect the noise reduction considerably. A measurement method to determine the angular dependent surface impedance was evaluated. It was shown sensitive to small samples and a method to improve accuracy was suggested. Including the angular dependence, either by full resolution or an angular dependent impedance, the field-absorber interaction is included in the simulations and more accurate results are obtained. The influence of flow and temperature fields on the absorber performance was also investigated. A method to include these effects was developed and the attenuation performance shown significant, especially for materials with bulk reaction.In conclusion, thorough knowledge of the material behavior and the field in the applications is required to choose appropriate material representation to enable reliable simulation results.
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