Effects of fertilisation with biogas residues on crop yield, soil microbiology and greenhouse gas emissions : recycling of plant nutrients from bioenergy production
Abstract: The amount of residues generated by biogas production has increased dramatically due to worldwide interest in using renewable energy. Biogas residues (BRs) originate from anaerobic degradation of different types of rural and urban organic wastes and have been proposed as organic fertilisers because of their high content of ammonium and other valuable macro- and micro-nutrients. However, application of BRs to agricultural soils may be accompanied by environmental risks, since they may contain heavy metals and organic pollutants. Therefore the effects of BRs on crop production and on the soil ecosystem and environment urgently need to be investigated before their wider use. This thesis evaluated and compared different types of BRs against cattle slurry, pig slurry, compost and mineral fertiliser with respect to their (1) ability to provide plants with necessary nutrients, (2) impact on the soil microbial ecosystem and (3) effects on emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N₂O). The results from short-term laboratory experiments and a long-term field trial showed that BRs increased crop yield to the same extent or more than conventional mineral fertiliser and compost, but less than pig slurry. BRs generated from source-separated organic household waste had a tendency to give higher crop yield and soil microbial activities than other BRs. BRs had no general negative effect on soil respiration, but substrate-induced respiration decreased significantly in organic soil on addition of BRs. Although all BRs initially inhibited potential ammonium oxidation and potential denitrification activity, no long-term negative effects were detected. BRs stimulated ammonium assimilation, which can temporarily decrease nitrogen availability to the plant. Furthermore, the bacterial community structure in the sandy soil was altered by BRs and cattle slurry, but no significant change was seen in the community structure of clay and organic soil. Application of BRs and animal slurry increased N₂O emissions, but the total losses and flux patterns were affected by fertiliser type and soil type. In conclusion, the fertiliser value of BRs should be regarded as high and they apparently have no long-term adverse effects on soil microbial functions and structures. Thus the problematic amounts of residues associated with expansion of biogas production could be turned to advantage, as these residues seem to be safe and competitive fertilisers.
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