Design, Synthesis and Characterization of Galanin Receptor Selective Ligands
Abstract: Galanin is a 29/30 amino acid long bioactive peptide discovered over 30 years ago when C-terminally amidated peptides were isolated from porcine intestines. The name galanin originates from a combination of the first and last amino acids - G from glycine and the rest from alanine. The first 15 amino acids are highly conserved throughout species, which indicates that the N-terminus is important for receptor recognition and binding. Galanin exerts its effects by binding to three different G protein-coupled receptors, which all differ according to regional distribution, the affinity for shortened galanin fragments, as well as the intracellular G-protein signaling cascade used. When first discovered, galanin was found to cause muscle contraction as well as hyperglycemia. Over the years, galanin has been reported to be involved in a wide variety of biological functions, for example food intake and neurogenesis, and pathological functions, for example epilepsy and depression.Determining the specific involvement of the three different galanin receptors in biological and pathological processes is limited by the small amount of galanin receptor selective/specific ligands available as research tools. Furthermore, the fast degradation of peptides limits the administration routes in animal studies.This thesis aims at developing new galanin receptor-selective ligands to help delineate the involvement of the three different galanin receptors.Paper 1 presents the shortest galanin fragment with a galanin receptor 2 specific binding preference where only a single amino acid substitution was made, Ala5Ser in galanin (2-11). In addition, G-protein coupled receptor signaling were evaluated through both a classical second messenger assay and a real-time label-free technique in cells overexpressing the receptor as well as low receptor expression.Paper 2 demonstrates that the neuroprotective effects of galanin in a kainic acid-induced excitotoxic animal model were mediated through galanin receptor 1. Furthermore, a new robust protocol for evaluating G-protein signaling using a label-free real time impedance technique was presented and compared to two different classical second-messenger assays.Paper 3 presents a series of systemically active galanin receptor 2 selective ligands subsequently evaluated in two different depression-like animal models.Paper 4 investigates a mutated form of human galanin which was found in epilepsy patients and binding and signaling properties of the mutated associated ligand p.(A39E) was examined.In conclusion, this thesis presents the discovery of eight new galanin ligands, which can be used to evaluate the galaninergic system as well as to help investigate the possible use of peptides as pharmaceuticals in different diseases.
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