Optimal and Resilient Control with Applications in Smart Distribution Grids

Abstract: The electric power industry and society are facing the challenges and opportunities of transforming the present power grid into a smart grid. To meetthese challenges, new types of control systems are connected over IT infrastructures. While this is done to meet highly set economical and environmental goals, it also introduces new sources of uncertainty in the control loops. In this thesis, we consider control design taking some of these uncertainties into account.In Part I of the thesis, some economical and environmental concerns in smart grids are taken into account, and a scheduling framework for static loads (e.g., smart appliances in residential areas) and dynamic loads (e.g., energy storage systems) in the distribution level is investigated. A robust formulation is proposed taking the user behavior uncertainty into account, so that the optimal scheduling cost is less sensitive to unpredictable changes in user preferences. In addition, a novel distributed algorithm for the studied scheduling framework is proposed, which aims at minimizing the aggregated electricity cost of a network of apartments sharing an energy storage system. We point out that the proposed scheduling framework is applicable to various uncertainty sources, storage technologies, and programmable electrical loads.In Part II of the thesis, we study smart grid uncertainty resulting from possible security threats. Smart grids are one of the most complex cyber-physical systems considered, and are vulnerable to various cyber and physical attacks. The attack scenarios consider cyber adversaries that may corrupt a few measurements and reference signals, which may degrade the system’s reliability and even destabilize the voltage magnitudes. In addition, a practical attack-resilient framework for networked control systems is proposed. This framework includes security information analytics to detect attacks and a resiliency policy to improve the performance of the system running under the attack. Stability and optimal performance of the networked control system under attack and by applying the proposed framework, is proved here. The framework has been applied to an energy management system and its efficiency is demonstrated on a critical attack scenario.