Atrial Fibrillation after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery A Study of Causes and Risk Factors
Abstract: The aim was to study pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors for developing atrial fibrillation (AF) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and the effect of thoracic epidural anaesthesia (TEA).The study comprised 141 patients undergoing CABG, including 45 patients randomised for TEA intra- and postoperatively. All patients underwent 24-hour Holter monitoring pre- and postoperatively for the analysis of arrhythmias and heart rate variability (HRV). Catecholamines and neuropeptides (reflecting sympathetic and parasympathetic activity), atrial peptides and echocardiographically assessed atrial arias were obtained pre- and postoperatively.Logistic regression analysis identified body mass index (BMI), maximum supraventricular beats (SPB) per minute, and total amount of cardioplegia as independent predictors of postoperative AF. Patients developing AF showed limited diurnal variation of HRV preoperatively. All HRV parameters decreased significantly in all patients postoperatively. The significant postoperative increase in atrial areas and atrial peptides did not differ between patients developing AF and those who did not. TEA had no effect on the incidence of postoperative AF, but resulted in lower heart rate, less increase in adrenaline levels, and decreased neuropeptide levels (reflecting sympathetic and parasympathetic activity). AF was initiated by an SPB in 72.4% of non-TEA and 100% of TEA treated patients, whereas changes in heart rate only, before onset, were seen in 17.2% non-TEA patients.The observed risk factors, SPB and cardioplegia, may both induce electrophysiological changes known to increase the susceptibility to AF. The observed postoperative atrial dilatation and autonomic imbalance, indicated by HRV and neuropeptide levels, may further favour the development of AF. The observation that a majority of postoperative AF was initiated by a premature atrial contraction supports our hypothesis that latent atrial foci may be a major trigger mechanism of postoperative AF.
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