Removal of natural organic matter by enhanced coagulation in Nicaragua
Abstract: The existence of trihalomethanes (THMs) in a drinking water plant of Nicaragua has been investigated in order to see whether the concentration exceeded the maximum contaminant level recommended by the environmental protection agency of the United States (USEPA) and the Nicaragua guidelines. The influence of pH, temperature, chlorine dose and contact time on the formation of THMs were studied. The contents of organic matter measured by surrogate parameters such as total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, ultraviolet absorbance and specific ultraviolet absorbance were also determined in order to show which type of organic matter is most reactive with chlorine to form THMs. Models developed by other researchers to predict the formation of trihalomethanes were tested to see whether they can be used to estimate the trihalomethane concentration. In addition, empirical models were development to predict the THM concentration of the drinking water plant analysed. The raw water was treated by conventional and enhanced coagulation and these processes were compared with regard to the removal of natural organic matter (NOM). The significance of the results was assessed using statistic procedures.The average concentration of THMs found at the facility is below the USEPA and Nicaragua guideline values. Nevertheless the maximum contaminant level set by USEPA is sometimes exceeded in the rainy season when the raw water is rich in humic substances. Comparison between the water treated by conventional and enhanced coagulation shows that enhanced coagulation considerably diminished the trihalomethane formation and the value after enhanced coagulation never exceeded the guidelines. This is because enhanced coagulation considerably decreases the organic matter due to the high coagulant dose applied. The study of the trihalomethane formation when varying pH, time, temperature and chlorine dose using water treated by conventional and enhanced coagulation showed that higher doses of chlorine, higher pH, higher temperature and a longer time increases the formation of THMs. However, combinations of two and three factors are the opposite. The predicted THM formation equations cannot be used for the water at this facility, since the results shown that the measured THM differs significantly from the THM concentration predicted. Two empirical models were developed from the data for enhanced coagulation, using linear and non-linear regression. These models were tested using the database obtained with conventional coagulation. The non-linear model was shown to be able to predict the formation of THMs in the Boaco drinking water plant.
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