Synchronous and Concurrent Transmissions for Consensus in Low-Power Wireless

University dissertation from ; Chalmers tekniska högskola; Gothenburg

Abstract: With the emergence of the Internet of Things, autonomous vehicles and the Industry 4.0, the need for dependable yet adaptive network protocols is arising. Many of these applications build their operations on distributed consensus. For example, UAVs agree on maneuvers to execute, and industrial systems agree on set-points for actuators. Moreover, such scenarios imply a dynamic network topology due to mobility and interference, for example. Many applications are mission- and safety-critical, too. Failures could cost lives or precipitate economic losses. In this thesis, we design, implement and evaluate network protocols as a step towards enabling a low-power, adaptive and dependable ubiquitous networking that enables consensus in the Internet of Things. We make four main contributions: - We introduce Orchestra that addresses the challenge of bringing TSCH (Time Slotted Channel Hopping) to dynamic networks as envisioned in the Internet of Things. In Orchestra, nodes autonomously compute their local schedules and update automatically as the topology evolves without signaling overhead. Besides, it does not require a central or distributed scheduler. Instead, it relies on the existing network stack information to maintain the schedules. - We present A2 : Agreement in the Air, a system that brings distributed consensus to low-power multihop networks. A2 introduces Synchrotron, a synchronous transmissions kernel that builds a robust mesh by exploiting the capture effect, frequency hopping with parallel channels, and link-layer security. A2 builds on top of this layer and enables the two- and three-phase commit protocols, and services such as group membership, hopping sequence distribution, and re-keying. - We present Wireless Paxos, a fault-tolerant, network-wide consensus primitive for low-power wireless networks. It is a new variant of Paxos, a widely used consensus protocol, and is specifically designed to tackle the challenges of low-power wireless networks. By utilizing concurrent transmissions, it provides a dependable low-latency consensus. - We present BlueFlood, a protocol that adapts concurrent transmissions to Bluetooth. The result is fast and efficient data dissemination in multihop Bluetooth networks. Moreover, BlueFlood floods can be reliably received by off-the-shelf Bluetooth devices such as smartphones, opening new applications of concurrent transmissions and seamless integration with existing technologies.