Enterobacteriaceae Producing Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Aspects of Detection, Epidemiology and Control
Abstract: Enterobacteriaceae belong to the normal enteric flora in humans and may cause infections. Escherichia coli is the leading urinary tract pathogen with septicaemic potential, whereas Klebsiella pneumoniae causes opportunistic infections and often outbreaks in hospital settings. Beta-lactams are the first choice for treatment of infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae, and might be destroyed by extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, ESBLs. ESBLs hydrolyse all beta-lactams except cephamycin and carbapenems, and constitute a large heterogeneous group of enzymes with different origins. The phenotypic and molecular characteristics of a K. pneumoniae strain causing a major outbreak at Uppsala University Hospital between 2005 and 2008 were described. The strain was multiresistant and produced CTM-M-15, a common ESBL type in Europe. Due to the lack of obvious epidemiological links between patients, a case-control study was performed, which identified risk factors for the acquisition of the outbreak strain in urine cultures. The complex chain of transmission facilitated by patient overcrowding and the interventions applied to curb the outbreak, was revealed in the subsequent study. In the final study, the genetic background of the observed increase in ESBL-producing E. coli isolates during the K. pneumoniae outbreak was explored. The utility of six typing methods in epidemiological investigations of a local outbreak with ESBL-producing E. coli was compared. The increase of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates was not secondary to the K. pneumoniae outbreak. Twentytwo per cent belonged to the epidemic O25b-ST131 clone and only a limited number of infections were caused by nosocomial transmission. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are a challenge to clinical microbiology laboratories and infection control teams. To investigate their dissemination, typing methods need to be continuously adapted to the current situation. Proper hand disinfection and structural key problems such as over-crowding, under-staffing, lack of single rooms and bathrooms must be adressed to limit transmission.
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