Image processing on optimal volume sampling lattices Thinking outside the box

University dissertation from Uppsala : Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis

Abstract: This thesis summarizes a series of studies of how image quality is affected by the choice of sampling pattern in 3D. Our comparison includes the Cartesian cubic (CC) lattice, the body-centered cubic (BCC) lattice, and the face-centered cubic (FCC) lattice.Our studies of the lattice Brillouin zones of lattices of equal density show that, while the CC lattice is suitable for functions with elongated spectra, the FCC lattice offers the least variation in resolution with respect to direction. The BCC lattice, however, offers the highest global cutoff frequency. The difference in behavior between the BCC and FCC lattices is negligible for a natural spectrum. We also present a study of pre-aliasing errors on anisotropic versions of the CC, BCC, and FCC sampling lattices, revealing that the optimal choice of sampling lattice is highly dependent on lattice orientation and anisotropy.We suggest a new reference function for studies of aliasing errors on alternative sampling lattices. This function has a spherical spectrum, and a frequency content proportional to the distance from the origin, facilitating studies of pre-aliasing in spatial domain.The accuracy of anti-aliased Euclidean distance transform is improved by application of more sofisticated methods for computing the sub-spel precision term. We find that both accuracy and precision are higher on the BCC and FCC lattices than on the CC lattice. We compare the performance of several intensity-weighted distance transforms on MRI data, and find that the derived segmentation result, with respect to relative error in segmented volume, depends neither on the sampling lattice, nor on the sampling density.Lastly, we present LatticeLibrary, a open source C++ library for processing of sampled data, supporting a number of common image processing methods for CC, BCC, and FCC lattices. We also introduce BccFccRaycaster, a tool for visualizing data sampled on CC, BCC, and FCC lattices.We believe that the work summarized in this thesis provide both the motivation and the tools for continuing research on application of the BCC and FCC lattices in image processing and analysis.