Wideband Active and Passive Antenna Solutions for Handheld Terminals
Abstract: This thesis presents solutions and studies related to the design of wideband antennas for wireless handheld terminal applications. A method of electrically shortening the terminal chassis length to obtain resonance at high frequencies has been proposed and evaluated, thereby increasing the antennas impedance bandwidth. No significant effect on the lower frequency band in a dual-band antenna prototype has been observed, making the method suitable for multi-band applications. The chassis has further been utilized as a zero-thickness 0.9 - 2.7 GHz high efficiency antenna by inserting a notch in the chassis center, and a feasibility study for typical phones has been performed. Additionally, the effect of talk position on the chassis wave-mode has been investigated, where the standard equivalent circuit model for terminal antennas has been modified to include the presence of the users head. The model has been used to explain measured and simulated effects concerning frequency detuning, efficiency reduction and bandwidth enhancements when the terminal is placed in talk position.The use of a hands-free earpiece cord is currently mandatory for FM radio reception as the cord is utilized as antenna. However, there is currently a market driven demand for removing the cord requirement since many modern phones are equipped with speakers and Bluetooth headsets. In this thesis, an active ferrite loop antenna is proposed as an internal replacement/complement with a performance of -23 dB (G/T degradation) compared to a full-size lossless dipole in urban environments. Also, a modification to the cord is suggested for DVB H reception.Complex matching networks have been investigated to increase the bandwidth of dual band PIFA antennas, and a printed dual band dipole has been integrated with a modified Marchand balun for dual resonance at two separate frequency bands, thus covering the commercial cellular bands 824-960 and 1710-2170 MHz with a single antenna.
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