Power Control for Multi-Cell Massive MIMO
Abstract: The cellular network operators have witnessed significant growth in data traffic in the past few decades. This growth occurs due to the increases in the number of connected mobile devices, and further, the emerging mobile applications developed for rendering video-based on-demand services. As the frequency bandwidth for cellular communication is limited, significant effort was dedicated to improve the utilization of the available spectrum and increase the system performance via new technologies. For example, 3G and 4G networks were designed to facilitate high data traffic in cellular networks in past decades. Nevertheless, there is a necessity for new cellular network technologies to accommodate the ever-growing data traffic demand. 5G is behind the corner to deal with the tremendous data traffic requirements that will appear in cellular networks in the next decade.Massive MIMO (multiple-input-multi-output) is one of the backbone technologies in 5G networks. Massive MIMO originated from the concept of multi-user MIMO. It consists of base stations (BSs) implemented with a large number of antennas to increase the signal strengths via adaptive beamforming and concurrently serving many users on the same time-frequency blocks. As an outcome of using Massive MIMO technology, there is a notable enhancement of both sum spectral efficiency (SE) and energy efficiency (EE) in comparison with conventional MIMO based cellular networks. Resource allocation is an imperative factor to exploit the specified gains of Massive MIMO. It corresponds to properly allocating resources in the time, frequency, space, and power domains for cellular communication. Power control is one of the resource allocation methods to deliver high spectral and energy efficiency of Massive MIMO networks. Power control refers to a scheme that allocates transmit powers to the data transmitters such that the system maximizes some desirable performance metric.In the first part of this thesis, we investigate reusing the resources of a Massive MIMO system, for direct communication of some specific user pairs known as device-to-device (D2D) underlay communication. D2D underlay can conceivably increase the SE of traditional Massive MIMO systems by enabling more simultaneous transmissions on the same frequencies. Nevertheless, it adds additional mutual interference to the network. Consequently, power control is even more essential in this scenario in comparison with conventional Massive MIMO systems to limit the interference that is caused between the cellular network and the D2D communication, thereby enabling their coexistence. In this part, we propose a novel pilot transmission scheme for D2D users to limit the interference to the channel estimation phase of cellular users in comparison with the case of sharing pilot sequences for cellular and D2D users. We also introduce a novel pilot and data power control scheme for D2D underlaid Massive MIMO systems. This method aims at assuring that D2D communication enhances the SE of the network in comparison with conventional Massive MIMO systems.In the second part of this thesis, we propose a novel power control approach for multi-cell Massive MIMO systems. The new power control approach solves the scalability issue of two well-known power control schemes frequently used in the Massive MIMO literature, which are based on the network-wide max-min and proportional fairness performance metrics. We first explain the scalability issue of these existing approaches. Additionally, we provide mathematical proof for the scalability of our proposed method. Our scheme aims at maximizing the geometric mean of the per-cell max-min SE. To solve this optimization problem, we prove that it can be rewritten in a convex form and then be solved using standard optimization solvers.
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