On the bone response to different implant textures. A 3D analysis of roughness, wavelength and surface pattern of experimental implants

Abstract: PurposeThe purpose of the present thesis was to investigate the bone response to different isotropic, anisotropic and organised surface patterns.Material and methodsImplant surfaces have been modified with different techniques (abrasive blasting, turning, milling, photolithography or laser ablation). Turned implants were used as controls in all of the studies. The surface topographies have been characterised visually and numerically using instruments appropriate to the study (Mechanical Stylus Profilometer, Confocal Laser Scanning Profilometer and/or Atomic Force Microscopy).Five studies were undertaken using two implant designs; cylinders and screws. In studies I, IV and V a total of 160 commercially available threaded implants were used. In study II, 54 microimplants were used, and in study III 40 cylinders. All implants were produced from commercially pure (c. p.) titanium grade I or II. In total 27 human patients and 50 New Zealand White rabbits have been involved.After a healing period of 12 weeks the rabbits were sacrificed and the implants were evaluated with resonance frequency analysis (2 studies), peak removal torque (3 studies), pull-out (1 study) and histomorphometry. The human implants were evaluated with histomorphometry after a mean healing time of 6.3 months in the maxillae and 3.9 months in the mandibles.ResultsThe results indicate that the influence of waviness in the surface topography of implants is of less importance than the surface roughness. It also seems that an anisotropic surface is superior to an isotropic surface for bone response to an implant surface.ConclusionA blasted surface, which has a surface with no dominant pattern, seems to be preferable to an anisotropic surface or a surface with a chequered pattern.Increasing the average wavelength from 10 µm to approximately 40 µm did not improve implant incorporation in bone.

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