Control Design and Performance Analysis of force Reflective Teleoperators - A Passivity Based Approach

University dissertation from Stockholm : Maskinkonstruktion

Abstract: In this thesis, the problem of controlling a surgical masterand slave system with force reflection is studied. The problemof stiff contacts between the slave and the environment isgiven specific attention. The work has been carried out at KTHbased on an initial cooperation with Karolinska Sjukhuset. Theaim of the over all project is to study the possibilities forintroduction of a force reflective teleoperator in neurologicalskullbase operations for the particular task of bone millingand thereby, hopefully, increase patient safety, decreasesurgeon workload and cost forthe society.The main contributions of this thesis are:Derivation of a dynamical model of the master andoperator?s finger system and, experimental identificationof ranges on model parameter values. Based on this model, theinteraction channel controllers optimized for transparency arederived and modified to avoid the influence of the uncertainmodel parameters. This results in a three channel structure. Todecrease the influence of the uncertain parameters locally atthe master, a control loop is designed such that the frequencyresponse of the reflected force is relatively unaffected by theuncertainties, a result also confirmed in a transparencyanalysis based on the H-matrix. The developed teleoperatorcontrol structure is tested in experiments where the operatorcould alter the contact force without facing any problems aslong as the slave is in contact with the environment.As a result of the severe difficulties for the teleoperatorto move from free space motion to in-contact manipulationwithout oscillative behaviour, a new detection algorithm basedon passivity theory is developed. The algorithm is able todetect the non-passive behaviour of the actual teleoperatorinduced by the discrete change in system dynamics occurring atthe contact instant. A stabilization controller to be activatedby the detection algorithm is designed and implemented on themaster side of the teleoperator. The detection algorithm andthe stabilization controller are shown highly effective in realexperiments.All major research results presented in the thesis have beenverified experimentally.KeywordsTeleoperator, Force Feedback, Passivity, StiffContacts, Control, Robustness, Transparency, Bone Milling,Uncertainty