Suitability of fly ash for construction and land applications
Abstract: Municipal solid waste incineration fly ash is often landfilled or sent abroad for stabilization because it is considered a hazardous waste. These approaches to fly ash are both costly, and highlight the need for alternative and sustainable ash recycling. Both the needs of waste recycling and preservation of natural resources can be solved by using fly ashes as a secondary construction material and as soil fertilizer. Three types of fly ashes have been investigated in the laboratory experiments. Namely municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), refuse-derived-fuel (RDF) and biofuel fly ashes. Factors influencing changes in chemical properties and mineralogical composition of RDF fly ash exposed to environmental conditions close to those that are found in a landfill top cover were evaluated in the accelerated ageing experiment. Element availability to leaching and plant uptake in soil amended with MSWI, biofuel fly ashes and biosolids was also evaluated. RDF fly ash exposed to the conditions found in a landfill top cover (20% CO2, 65% RH, 30°C T) lead to the chemical and mineralogical transformations that resulted in reduced leaching of most of the elements studied here. Only concentrations of Cl- in the leachates were an issue, because they still exceeded the leaching limit values; nevertheless the leaching of this element in aged ash decreased by 50% compared to fresh ash. Application of pelletized MSWI fly ash with biosolids on soil resulted in elevated total concentrations of As, Cd and Pb in soil (by 29%, 100% and 300%), but dissolved concentrations of these elements in soil pore water, except the As, were low as in the range of drinking water concentrations (98/83/EC). Furthermore, the concentrations of Cd and Pb in plant biomass were negligible regardless of the type of ash used. Based on the observations, RDF fly ash is considered as a suitable material to be used in a landfill liner. Whereas MSWI and biofuel fly ashes based on element availability for plants studies, could be considered suitable for land applications. But doses to be applied on soil should be adjusted to the type of ashes used to avoid accumulation of potentially toxic elements in soil over time.
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