New Methods for Reducing Ground-Borne Noise in Buildings above Railway Tunnels
Abstract: The rapid expansion of major cities in the west Europeancountries has accentuated the need to exploit every potentialsite for new establishments, e.g. areas over train tunnels andnear railway tracks in general. A significant impediment toexploit such areas is the structure-borne noise generated bythe train traffic, which is transmitted into buildings via theground. Reliable prediction methods and cost-effective noisecontrol measures are therefore needed and are also the objectof the present work. In this thesis, the studied buildings areconsidered as wave-guides for the sound transmitted from theground. The work is restricted to the case of hard ground suchas granite. The chosen technique permits comparison betweendifferent potential measures to reduce the transmission ofstructure-borne sound upward in buildings. It is shown that thedesign of the load-bearing structures is important in thiscontext, and a design with relocated columns has givenpromising results. It is also shown that the stiffness of theground plays an important role in the transmission process.This leads to the idea that a sand layer between the foundationof the building and the bedrock may reduce the transmission.New methods have thus been developed in the course of this workto evaluate the stiffness of the layer using approximate andexact techniques. Results are presented and a comparison ismade with previous results for a "normal" building and it isshown that the insertion of sand layer has a potential toconsiderably reduce the sound level in the building.Keywords:Ground-borne noise, railway noise, in-planewaves, wave-guides, scattering, propagation constant, inputmobility, elastic stratum, dual integral equations.
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