Wear in sheet metal forming
Abstract: The general trend in the car body manufacturing industry is towards low-series production and reduction of press lubricants and car weight. The limited use of press lubricants, in combination with the introduction of high and ultra-high strength sheet materials, continuously increases the demands of the forming tools. To provide the means of forming new generations of sheet material, development of new tool materials with improved galling resistance is required, which may include tailored microstructures, introducing of specific(MC, M(C,N))carbides and nitrides, coatings and improved surface finish. In the present work, the wear mechanisms in real forming operations have been studied and emulated on a laboratory scale by developing a test equipment. The wear mechanisms identified in the real forming process, were distinguished into a sequence of events consisting of initial local adhesive wear of the sheets resulting in transfer of sheet material to the tool surfaces. Successive forming operations led to growth of the transfer layer and initiation of scratching of the sheets. Finally, scratching changed into severe adhesive wear, associated with gross macroscopic damage. The wear process was repeated in the laboratory test-equipment in sliding between several tool materials, ranging from cast iron to conventional ingot cast tool steels to advanced powder metallurgy tool steel, against dual-phase carbon steel sheets. By use of the test-equipment, selected tool materials were ranked regarding wear resistance in sliding against ferritic-martensitic steel sheets at different contact pressures.Wear in sheet metal forming is mainly determined by adhesion; initially between the tool and sheet surface interaction and subsequently, after initiation of material transfer, between a sheet to sheet contact. Atomic force microscopy force curves showed that adhesion is sensitive to both chemical composition and temperature. By alloying of iron with 18wt.% Cr and 8wt.% Ni, alloying in itself, or changes in crystal structure, led to an increase of 3 times in adhesion at room temperature. Hence, alloying may be assumed a promising way for control of adhesive properties. Additionally, frictional heating should be controlled to avoid high adhesion as, generally, adhesion was found to increase with increasing temperature for all investigated materials.
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