Assessment of the Cerebral Ischemic/Reperfusion Injury after Cardiac Arrest
Abstract: The cerebral damage after cardiac arrest is thought to arise both from the ischemia during the cardiac arrest but also during reperfusion. It is the degree of cerebral damage which determines the outcome in patients. This thesis focuses on the cerebral damage after cardiac arrest.In two animal studies, positron emission tomography (PET) was used to measure cerebral blood flow, oxygen metabolism and oxygen extraction in the brain. After restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) from five or ten minutes of cardiac arrest there was an immediate hyperperfusion, followed by a hypoperfusion which was most evident in the cortex. The oxygen metabolism decreased after ROSC with the lowest values in the cortex. The oxygen extraction was high at 60 minutes after ROSC, indicating an ischemic situation. After ten minutes of cardiac arrest, there was a hyperperfusion in the cerebellum.In 31 patients resuscitated after cardiac arrest and treated with hypothermia for 24 hours, blood samples were collected from admission until 108 hours after ROSC. The samples were analyzed for different biomarkers in order to test the predictive value of the biomarkers. The patients were assessed regarding their neurological outcome at discharge from the intensive care unit and after six months. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was not associated with outcome. Neuron specific enolase (NSE) concentrations were higher among those with a poor outcome with a sensitivity of 57% and a specificity of 93% when sampled 96 hours after ROSC. S-100B was very accurate in predicting outcome; after 24 hours after ROSC it predicted a poor outcome with a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 100%. Tau protein predicted a poor outcome after 96 hours after ROSC with a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 93%.
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