Telephone advice nursing : communication, patient satisfaction and tool development
Abstract: Background: Telenursing has rapidly expanded in many countries. In Sweden, a national telephone advisory nursing service reaches the entire nation and receives approximately 4,5 million calls per year. The six phase nursing process – assessment, nursing diagnosis, setting goals, planning, implementation and evaluation – can be used when managing a caller’s health problem. In telenursing, a person-centred approach makes for more satisfied and appreciative callers. The core component of interaction is the verbal communication between the telenurse and caller. Several studies have revealed the need for the development of communication competence in telenursing. Structured analyses of conversations between telenurses and callers is one way to increase telenurses’ awareness of their communication and interpersonal competence. This type of analysis requires a valid formative self-assessment tool. To evaluate communicative effectiveness, the patient perspective of the interpersonal aspects of interaction are described as a necessary component, and satisfaction surveys designed for a telenursing context are recommended. Therefore, a questionnaire is needed that evaluates the effects of telenurse communication training from the caller’s perspective.Aims: The overall aim of these two studies was to develop tools to enable improvements and evaluations in communication and interpersonal competence in telenursing from the perspective of both the telenurse and the caller.Study 1: To develop a self-assessment tool aiming to raise telenurses’ awareness of their communication and interpersonal competence and highlight areas in need of improvement.Study 2: To develop and assess content validity of a theoretically anchored questionnaire that explores caller satisfaction in TAN as a result of the interaction between the caller and the telenurse.Methods: Study 1: The development and the evaluation of content validity of the Telenursing Self-Assessment Tool (TSAT) started with a literature search and domain identification, which were used to generate the items. The assessment of the content validity was performed in two steps. First, an expert group completed two rounds of assessments using Content Validity Index (CVI). Second, telenurses tested the tool and assessed the content validity using CVI. Thereafter, the telenurses participated in consensus discussions. Refinements of the tool were done after every assessment.Study 2: The development and the evaluation of content validity of the Telenursing Interaction and Satisfaction Questionnaire (TISQ) started with a literature search and domain identification, which were used to generate the items. The assessment of the content validity was performed in two steps. First, cognitive interviews were performed with the callers, the target population. Next, experts evaluated the content validity using CVI. Refinements of the tool were done after every assessment. The Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior (IMCHB) provided theoretical guidance and support.Results:Study 1: The TSAT with 58 items was developed. The items were structured according to the nursing process and the tool was judged as having good content validity.Study 2: The TISQ consisting of 60 items based on the IMCHB was developed. The questionnaire was found to exhibit good content validity.Conclusions: This thesis describes the development and assessment of content validity of two theoretically anchored tools aimed to improve and evaluate communication and interpersonal competence in telenursing from the perspective of both the telenurse and the caller. The TSAT is meant to create learning opportunities, to provide self-direction, feedback, and coaching, and to guide the telenurse through the nursing process using a person-centred approach. The TISQ aims to explore the callers’ satisfaction and the callers’ perceptions of the interaction with the telenurse. With better knowledge about this, communication improvement and education in telenursing can be tailored to enhance caller satisfaction.
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